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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hokuga.hgu.jp/dspace/handle/123456789/1238

Title: Writing Instruction in Second Language Classrooms
Authors: CUNLIFFE, Brenda
Keywords: process
product
error correction and feedback
Issue Date: 31-Oct-1995
Publisher: 北海学園大学人文学会
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine research intended to facilitate the instruction of writing in second language classrooms. Since writing is both a skill and an art, empirical studies of writing present some uncertainty. Traditionally, research on composition has viewed writing as a product. These studies consequently examined the efficacy of one grammar over another under the assumption that a pedagogical approach that would best develop students' writing should focus on usage, structure, and correctness of form. Little attention was paid to considerations such as purpose, audience, and the process of composing itself. Because of the emphasis on product, instructors utilized methods and materials intended to promote correct usage rather than real communication. However, during the last decade, there has been a major paradigm shift in composition theory and research. Writing is no longer viewed as an isolated act but rather as "a definitive and integral part of daily human communication" (Muller and Wiener, 1991, p. 1). Hence, recent research has begun to investigate the composing process itself in the belief that before instructors can teach writing, they must first under stand how we write. The findings of such studies seriously challenge the ways in which writing has been taught in the past and "militate against prescriptive approaches to the teaching of writing" (Witte and Faigley, 1981, p. 202). It is therefore important that ESL writing instructors take into account current research concerning the teaching of writing in second language classrooms.
URI: http://hokuga.hgu.jp/dspace/handle/123456789/1238
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