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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hokuga.hgu.jp/dspace/handle/123456789/1312

Title: 死に行く神の伝播とイスラエルの神 : 嘆きの女性をめぐって
Other Titles: The Diffusion of cults of dying gods and Israelites God : On wailing women in the ancient Mediteranean world
Authors: 桑原, 俊一
KUWABARA, TOSHIKAZU
Keywords: cult
wailing women
Dumuzi
Adonis
Issue Date: 31-Mar-2000
Publisher: 北海学園大学人文学会
Abstract: This paper deals with the diffusion of cults of dying gods in the ancient Near East, including ancient Israel. Stories of dying gods were widespread from Mesopotamia to Greece and Israel. The cult of Dumuzi, for instance, originates in the tale (often presented dramatically) of the dying god in the ancient Mesopotamia. The purpose of this paper, however, does not make clear the all phases by which traditions of the dying gods, but rather tries to explicate one factor of this cult: the origin and nature of public lamentation over the dying god, especially the lamenting women for dead sons or husbands. The most obvious feature or central idea of this cult is representation of the death and resurrection of gods, along with the seasonal cycle, especially during the winter and in the spring. Dumuzi, god of fertility, who embodied nature's powers for new life in the spring, became the Semitic god Tammuz. The cult of Tammuz spread to Greece as the festival of Adonia (god of Adonis) and celebrated by women in Israel. Tammuz cult seems to have revolved around two yearly festivals: one was celebrating the marriage of Tammuz to the goddess Inanna/Ishtar; the other was public lamentation for his death by groups of wailing women. On the one hand the marriage rite developed publically for political reason to enable the king to take on the identity of the god, while on the other, in an unofficial capacity, women continued to lament the death of Tammuz in festive rites. The annual festival of Adonia was held to celebrate such adonic figures as Osiris and Dumuzi at Byblos and elsewhere. Israelites, especially women, commemorated Tammuz festival with rites of public lamentation (Ez 8: 14). Since the biblical texts claim that Yahawh is only god, pagan gods were therefore in principle excluded, yet, in reality, evidence of Israelite religious practices attest that the pagan gods was worshiped from beginning to the end of the Joshua's reformation (B.C.722). The problem is to decide who in Israel supported the pagan gods or goddesses: Baal, Asherah, Astharte. It is well known, for instance, that the king Omuri worshiped the Cananite god Baal, since the prophets criticized him for doing so. Goddesses were worshiped for long time in Israel. The question is: who were the worshippers? My research represented in this paper has attempted to solve this enigma from a socio-religious point of view. Just as the festival of Adonia involved women who were placed in the lower stratum of social order, so in Israelite women supported the festivals of goddesses as a means of sustaining their own lives in the patriarchal system of ancient Israel.
URI: http://hokuga.hgu.jp/dspace/handle/123456789/1312
Appears in Collections:第15号

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